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Kelulusan S1, S2, & S3

Persyaratan Skripsi/Thesis

Tes TOEFL Online

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Mendaftar CPNS

Kelulusan S1, S2, & S3

Persyaratan Skripsi/Thesis

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TOEFL reading test 6 with answers

Architecture

Architecture is the art and science of designing structures that organize and enclose space for practical and symbolic purposes. Because architecture grows out of human needs and aspirations, it clearly communicates cultural values. Of all the visual arts, architecture affects our lives most directly for it determines the character of the human environment in major ways.

Architecture is a three-dimensional form. It utilizes space, mass, texture, line, light, and color. To be architecture, a building must achieve a working harmony with a variety of elements. Humans instinctively seek structures that will shelter and enhance their way of life. It is the work of architects to create buildings that are not simply constructions but also offer inspiration and delight. Buildings contribute to human life when they provide shelter, enrich space, complement their site, suit the climate, and are economically feasible. The client who pays for the building and defines its function is an important member of the architectural team. The mediocre design of many contemporary buildings can be traced to both clients and architects.

In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them even while building materials have changed dramatically. The world’s architectural structures have also been devised in relation to the objective limitations of materials. Structures can be analyzed in terms of how they deal with downward forces created by gravity. They are designed to withstand the forces of compression (pushing together), tension (pulling apart), bending, or a combination of these in different parts of the structure.

Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes. Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures. In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick. Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material. Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.

[■] Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body: a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, and equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems. [■] The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning. [■] Of course in early architecture-such as igloos and adobe structures-there was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one. [■]

Much of the world’s great architecture has been constructed of stone because of its beauty, permanence, and availability. In the past, whole cities grew from the arduous task of cutting and piling stone upon. Some of the world’s finest stone architecture can be seen in the ruins of the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru. The doorways and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support the weight from above. A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. The arch was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in above ground structures. Roman builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone. As a method of spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam. It works in compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the vertical elements on either side of the arch. The arch is among the many important structural breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries.

 Questions:

1. According to paragraph 1, all of the following statements about architecture are true EXCEPT:
     
     
     
     
2. The word “feasible” in the passage is closest in meaning to
      
      
      
3. The word “enhance” in the passage is closest in meaning to
      
      
      
4. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
   
5. The word “devised” in the passage is closest in meaning to
      
      
      
      
6. The word “integral” is closest in meaning to
      
      
      
      
7. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about materials used in the construction of buildings?
      
     
      
      
8. In paragraph 4, what does the author imply about modern buildings?
      
      
      
      
9. Which of the following correctly characterizes the relationship between the human body and architecture that is described in paragraph 5?
     
     
     
      
10. The word “arduous” in the passage is closest in meaning to
      
      
      
      
11. Why does the author include a description of how the “doorways and windows” of Machu Picchu were constructed?
     
      
     
      
12. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is true of the arch?
      
      
      
      
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit
However, some modern architectural designs, such as those using folded plates of concreter or air-inflated structures, are again unifying skeleton and skin. 
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Architecture uses forms and space to express cultural values.
     A. Architects seek to create buildings that are both visually appealing and well suited for human use.
     B. Over the course of the history of building, innovations in material and methods of construction have given architects ever greater freedom to express themselves.
     C. Throughout history buildings have been constructed like human bodies, needing distinct “organ” systems in order to function.
     D. Both clients and architects are responsible for the mediocre designs of some modern buildings.
     E. Modern buildings tend to lack the beauty of ancient stone buildings such as those of Machu Picchu.
    F. The discovery and use of the arch typifies the way in which architecture advances by developing more efficient types of structures.

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Answers:

 1.D, 2.C, 3.B, 4.D, 5.B, 6.A, 7.B, 8.C, 9.D, 10.A, 11.C, 12.B, 13.D, 14.ABF
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