TRIK JITU MENGERJAKAN SOAL TOEFL (READING DAN JAWABANNYA
Both in what is now the eastern and the southwestern United States,the peoples of the ARCHAIC ERA(8,000-1,000 B.C) were ,in a way,already adapted to beginnings of cultivation through their intensive gathering and processing of wild plant foods.In both areas,there was a well-established ground stone tool technology,a method of pounding and grinding nuts and other plant foods,that could be adapted to newly cultivated foods.By the end of the Archaic era,people in eastern North Anertica had domesticated certain native plants,including sunflowers;weeds called goosefoot,sumpweed,or marsh elder;and squash or gourds of some kind.These provided seeds that were important soucer of carbohydrates and fat in the diet.
The earliest cultivation seems to have taken place along the river valleys of the Midwest and domestication beginning 4,000 to 2,000 years ago.Although the term”Neolithic”is not used in North American prehistory,these were the first steps toward the same major subsistence changes that took place during the Neolithic(8,000-2,000 B.C)period essewhere in the world.
Archaeologists debate the reasons for beginning cultivation in the eastern part of the continent.Although population and sedentary living were increasing at the time,there is little evidence that people lacked adequate wild food resources;the newly domesticated foods supplemented a continuing mixed subsistence of hunting,fishing,and gathering wild plants,Increasing predictability of food supplies may have been a motive.It has been suggested that some early cultivation was for medicinal and ceremonial plants rather than for food.One archaeologist has pointed out that the early domesticated plants were all weedy species that do well in open,disturbed habitats,the kind that would form around human settlements where people cut down trees,trample the ground,deposit trash,and dig holes.It has been suggested that sunflower,sumpweed,and other plants almost domesticated themselves that is they thrived in human-disturbed habitats,so humans intensively collected them and began to control their distribution.Women in the Archaic communities were probably the main experimenters with cultivation,because ethnoarchaeological evidence tells us that women were the main collectors of plant food and had detailed knowledge of plants.
1.The passage mainly discusses which of the following aspects of the life of Archaic peoples?
a.The principal sources of food that made up their diet
b.Their development of ground stone tool technology
c.Their development of agriculture
d.Their distribution of work between men and women
2.The word”these”in line 13 refers to
c.the Midwest and the Southeast
d.experimentation and domestication
3.According to the passage,when did the domestication of plants begin in North America?
a.7,000 years ago
b.4,000 to 2,000 years ago
c.Long after the Neolithic period
d.Before the Archaic period
4.The word”adequate”in line 18 is closest in meaning to
5.According to the passage,which of the following was a possible motive for the cultivation of plants in eastern North Anerica?
a.Lack of enough wild food sources
b.The need to keep trees from growing close to settlements
c.Provision of work for an increasing population
d.Desire for the consistent availability of food
6.The phrase”rather than”in line 22 is closest in meaning to
a.in addition to
c.as a replacement
7.The plant”sumpweed”is mentioned in line26 in order to
a.contrast a plant with high nutritional value with one with little nutritional value
b.explain the medicinal use of a plant
c.clarify which plants grew better in places where trees were not cut down
d.provide an example of a plant that was easy to domesticate
8.The word”thrived”in line 27 is closest in meaning to
9.According to the passage,which of the following is true about all early domesticated plants?
a.They were varieties of weeds.
b.hey were moved from disturbed areas.
c.They succeeded in area with many trees
d.They failed to grow in trampled or damaged areas.
10.According to the passage,it is thought that most of the people who began cultivating plants were
b.leaders of ceremonies
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