TRIK JITU MENGERJAKAN SOAL TOEFL(READING 4)
The history of clinical nutrition,or the study of the
relationship between health and how the body takes in and
utilizes food substances,can be divided into four distinct
line eras:the first began in the nineteenth century and extended
(5) into the early twentieth century when it was recognized
for the first time that food contained constituents that were
essential for human function and that different foods
provided different amounts of these essential agents.Near
the end of this era,research studies demonstrated that rapid
(10) weight loss was associated with nitrogen imbalance and
could only be rectified by providing adequate dietary
protein associated with certain foods.
The second era was initiated in the early decades of
the twentieth century and might be called “the vitamin
period.”Vitamins came to be recognized in foods,and
deficiency syndromes were described.As vitamins became
recognized as essential food constituents necessary for
health,it become tempting to suggest that every disease and
condition for which there had been no previous effective
(20) treatment might be responsive to vitamin therapy.At that
point in time,medical schools started to become more
interested in having their curricula intregrate nutritional
concepts into the basic sciences.Much of the focus of this
education was on the recognition of vitamin deficiency
(25) symptoms.Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately
turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional
therapies in medicine.Reckless claims were made for
effects of vitamins that went far beyond what could
actually be achieved from the use of them.
(30) In the third era of nutritional history i the early
1950’s to mid-1960’s,vitamin therapy began to fall into
disrepute.Concomitant with this,nutrition education in
medical schools also become less popular.It was just a
decade before this that many drug companies had found
(35) their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply
practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins
and literature extolling the virtue of suplementation for a
variety of health-related conditions.Expectations as to the
success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated.
(40) As is known in retrospect,vitamin and mineral therapies
are much less effective when applied to health-crisis
conditions than when applied to long-term problems of
under nutrition that lead to chronic health problems.
1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
a.The effects of vitamins on the human body
b.The history of food preferences from the nineteenth century
to the present
c.The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field of
d.Nutritional practices of the nineteenth century
Jawab:(C)The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field
Key word:The history of clinical nutrition
Pembahasan:di awal paragraf pertama disebutkan tentang tahap perkembangan dari nutrisi klinik sebagai bidang pembelajaran yang dibagi dalam empat era.
2.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following discoveries was made during the first era in the history of nutrition?
a.Protein was recognized as an essential component of diet.
b.Vitamins were synthesized from foods
c.Effective techniques of weight loss were determined
d.Certain foods were found to be harmful to good health.
Jawab:(A)protein was recognized as an essential component of diet
Key word:rectified by providing adequate dietary protein
Pembahasan:sebagai inti penjelasan era pertama,disebutkan bahwa penambahan protein dalam makanan merupakan salah satu komponen penting bagi tubuh
3.The word”tempting”in line 18 is closest in meaning to
4.It can be inferred from the passage that medical schools began to
teach concepts of nutrition in order to
a.convince medical doctors to participate in research studies on
b.encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition in
the treatment of disease
c.convince doctors to conduct experimental vitamin therapies on
d.support the creation of artificial vitamins
Jawab:(B)encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition
in the treatment of disease
Key word:on the recognition of vitamin deficiency symptoms.
Pembahasan:para docter mulai mempelajari nutrisi untuk mengetahui gejala-gejala dari penyakit kekurangan vitamin.
5.The word”Reckless”in line 27 is closest in meaning to
6.The word”them” in line 29 refers to
Key word:for effects of vitamins
Pembahasan:kalimat tersebut menjelaskan tentang penggunaan vitamin secara lebih lanjut.
7.Why did vitamin therapy begin losing favor in the the 1950’s
a.The public lost interest in vitamins
b.Medical schools stopped teaching nutritional concepts.
c.Nutritional research was of poor quality
d.Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be
Jawab:(D)Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be exaggerated.
Key word:Expectations as to the success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated
Pembahasan:kepopuleran vitamin jatuh karena kurang efektifnya penggunaan terapi vitamin dalam penyakit.
8.The phrase”concomitant with”in line 32 is closest in meaning to
a.in conjunction with
c.in dispute with
d.in regard to
Jawab:(A)in conjunction with
Pembahasan:concomitant with=bersamaan dengan=in conjunction with
In dispute with=bersengketa dengan
In egard to=mengenai
9.The word”skyrocketing” in line 35 is closest in meaning to
menanjak denga cepat=increasing rapidly
internationally popular=popular secara internasional
10.The word”extolling”in line 37 is closest in meaning to
11.The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses
a.The fourth era of nutrition history
b.problems associated with undernutrition
c.how drug companies became succesful
d.why nutrition education lost its appeal
Jawab:(A)the fourth era of nutrition history
Key word:The history of clinical nutrition can be divided into four distinct eras
Pembahasan:pada awal bacaan disebutkan bahwa ada empat era nutrisi klinis,karena dalam bacaan di atas baru ada tiga era,maka kemungkinan besar paragraf selanjutnya akan membahas era keempat dari sejarah nutrisi klinis.
Tim Master Eduka-Bank soal dan strategi TOEFL
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