TRIK JITU MENGERJAKAN SOAL TOEFL(READING DAN JAWABANNJA
Lichens probably the hardiest of all plants,live where virtually nothing77 else can not-just on rugged mountain peaks but also on sunbaked desert rocks.They are usually the first life to appear on a mountainside that has been scraped bare by an avalanche.Unlike other members of the plant kingdom,lichens are actually a partnership between two plant.The framework of a lichen is usually a network of minute hairlike fungus that anchors the plant,The other component is an alga(similar to the green film of plant life that grows on stagnant pools) that is distributed throughout the fungus.Being green plants,algae are capable of photosynthesis-that is,using energy from the sun to manufacture their own food.The fungi arc believed to supply water,minerals,and physical support to the partnership.
Lichens are famous for their ability to survive-water shortage.When water is scarce(as is often the casa on a mountain),lichens may become dormant and remain in that condition for prolonged period of time.Some lichens can even grow where there is no rain at all,surviving on only occasional dew-the moisture that condedses on the surface of the plant at night,And unlike most other plants,lichens are little affected by strong ultraviolet eays in the mountains.
Lichens use little energy,for they grow slowly.Some grow so slowly and are so old that they are called”time stains.”You may find lichens that are centuries old;certain of these lichen colonies have been established for an estimated 2,000 years.
For decades,scientists wondered how the offspring of an alga and a fungus got together to form a new lichen,it seemed unlikely that they would just happen lo encounter one another.It eas finally discovered that in many cases the two partners have never been separated.Stalklike”buds” that form on certain lichens are broken off by the wind or by animals;these toll or are blown to a new location.
1.Which of the following questions does the passage answer?
a.Where can the oldest lichens be found?
b.How long does it take for lichens to establish themselves?
c.How large can lichens he?
d.Where do lichens usually occur?
2.The word”hardiest”in line 1 is closest in meaning to
3.The word”framework”in line 5 is closest in meaning to
4.The author mentions”the green film of plant life that grows on stagnant pools”(line 6)in order to explain
a.how the sun affects lichens
b.why plants depend in water
c.where fungi become algae
d.what algae arc
5.I can be inferred from the passage that lichens use less eergy and grow more slowly when
a.the environment isw polluted
b.they are exposed to ultraviolet rays
c.they are very old
d.the supply of water is inadequate
6.Which of file following terms is defined in the passage?
7.The word”prolonged”in line 13 is closest in meaning to
8.All of the following are mentioned in the discussion of lichens EXCEPT:
a.They are capable of producing their own food.
b.They require large amounts of minerals lo prosper.
c.They are a union of two separate plants.
d.They can live thousands of years.
9.What does the phrase “lichen colonies(line 19)suggest?
a.Noothing but lichens live insome locations.
b.Many lichens live together in one area.
c.Lichens displace the plants that surround them.
d.Certain groups of lichens have never been separated.
10.The word”encounter”in line 22 is closest in meaning to
11.The word”these”in line 24 refers to
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